Aims : to discuss the large volume of high-quality trial data being published about pleural disease, including phase III trials in several subspecialty areas and updated international guidelines that are due to be published in early 2022. In terms of malignant pleural effusion, participants will be able to select the optimal diagnostic strategy, including thoracoscopy and direct-to-biopsy approaches, and explain the proven advantages and disadvantages of different management options to facilitate patient-centred, evidence-based care. In terms of pleural infection, participants will be able to correctly diagnose and identify patients requiring drainage, adjunctive intrapleural therapies and referral for surgery, deploy risk prediction scores and explain relevant translational and antimicrobial data. In terms of pneumothorax, participants will be able to differentiate between patients requiring admission and those suitable for ambulatory management, based on recent phase III trials, and identify the importance of familial pneumothorax and ongoing trials, including those involving the use of suction. In terms of mesothelioma, participants will be able to select optimal diagnostic and treatment strategies including first- and second-line immunotherapy and learn about the role of regional multidisciplinary teams and options for patients with early-stage disease, including radical surgery and ongoing clinical trials.